Septima Poinsette Clark was an American civil rights activist and educator. Clark developed the literacy and citizenship workshops that played a pivotal role in the drive for voting and civil rights during the American Civil Rights Movement. She became known as the "Queen mother" or "Grandmother" of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States and Martin Luther King Jr. commonly referred to Clark as "The Mother of the Movement." He also acknowledged Clark when he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 by insisting that she accompany him to Sweden.
She’s most famous for establishing "Citizenship Schools" teaching reading to adults throughout the Deep South. President Jimmy Carter awarded Clark a Living Legacy Award in 1979. In 1987, her second autobiography, Ready from Within: Septima Clark and the Civil Rights Movement, Wild Trees Press, (1986), won the American Book Award.